Minerals

Mineral Nutrition for Muscadine Grapes
Dr. Mercy Olmstead, Extension Specialist University of FloridaImportance of Nutrition
Plants need essential elements to survive, produce high quality fruit ? Photosynthesis, cell wall growth, fruit set all depend upon optimum levels of nutrients
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Pre-plant analysis: What can the soil provide? Amendments based on analysis since some elements are easier to fix before plantingImpact of pH on Nutrients
Soil pH is important ? pH affects nutrient availability

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? Some nutrients more available in soil or solution

Areas with significant rainfall have lower soil pH
? Due to leaching of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ ? Replaced with H+**The thicker the bar, the more available the nutrientImpact of pH on NutrientsSoil pH Adjustments
Acidic soils must be adjusted before planting ? Rate of pH change:

? Dolomitic lime (contains Mg) – Slow ? Ground limestone – Slow ? Pelletized limestone – Fast

Use combination of materials to sustain effect
http://web1.msue.msu.edu/monroe/soilweb2/raising%20pH.htmIrrigation Water pH

Solutions for high pH water? Acidify the water source ? Monitor soil pH ? Apply fertilizers with sulfur to bring pH downRequired Elements

Macronutrients –
? Needed in large quantities ? Reported in % on plant tissue analysis
Micronutrients
? Needed in much smaller quantities ? Reported in parts per million (ppm)
? Ppm = mg/L? Easy to go from deficiency to toxicity with improper applicationNitrogen
Important in making amino acids & proteins, DNA and RNA, and chlorophyll ? Deficiency affects older leaves first

? Yellowing, small leaves

Excessive nitrogen promotes vigor and can leach into groundwater
? Increased pressure by environmental groups
? EPA Numeric Nutrient Criteria in Florida
? Sets numeric limit on P and N in bodies of waterPhosphorus

Important in cells that transfer energy
? ATP and ADP –…

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